Sunday, March 15, 2020
American dream amer Essay example American dream amer Essay example Raven Des Jardins H. American Lit essay 8/22/14 My Antonia vs. American Dream Willa Cather's My Antonia tells the story of Antonia Shimerda, a Bohemian immigrant growing up in early twentieth-century rural Nebraska. The story is told through the perspective of a boy named Jim Burden, in the form of a memoir featuring random memories having to do with Antonia. To Jim, Antonia is the symbol of his youth. He sees her as full of energy and life, and is perhaps drawn to her because of this, to fill a gap in his quiet, observational personality. The story focuses on Antonia, and her struggles as an immigrant woman struggling to balance her goal to get as much out of life with the poverty she is caught in. Antonia's family emigrates to Nebraska from their country Bohemia and buys a small homestead for an exorbitant price, and only knows one person in the country who speaks their language. Her family has almost nothing, and the first we are told of the Shimerdas is: "They can't any of them speak English, except one little girl, and a ll she can say is 'We go to Black Hawk, Nebraska.'" (18). Antonia, however, sets out to learn with a vengeance. She devours knowledge during English lessons from Jim, and the two form a friendship. Her life was apparently not meant to be easy, however. Antonia had always been close with her father, and, following his suicide, she is devastated. It had been a difficult winter for the family, and without her father the family is rudderless. Antonia's older brother, Ambrosch took over for the family, and instead of going to the nearby country school, Antonia worked in the fields with her brother. She lamented this loss of education, for her father had had quite a bit of higher education and Antonia looked up to him even after his death. She continued to try her hardest to impress her brother though, and to do as much labor as she can. She quickly becomes boastful about her farming skills, and the muscle she has built. She seems to have lost her vivacious charm that was so entr ancing to Jim when he first met her, and during a visit to Jim's, he asks her why she is always trying to be someone other than herself. Antonia, just a teenager, replies "If I live here, like you, that is different. Things will be easy for you. But they will be hard for us." (124). At her young age Antonia already knows the challenges of being European immigrants in the newly settled country, equality is something she knows she will never have fully. The American Dream may be an image everyone has in their heads, but for some it is harder to achieve than others, even impossible due to prejudices. Antonia has lived in America only for several years and already been a firsthand witness to this injustice. The tale of Antonia continues through Jim's high school career, when his family moves into the nearby town so that Jim can have an education. The same year, the Shimerdas can no longer feed themselves, and so Antonia is sent to work as a hired girl and send her wages back to h er family. The house that hires Antonia is coincidentally next to Jim's new house, and so the saga continues. Conflict arises when Antonia begins to frequent the dancing halls. Though she is considered rough by many of the more refined townsfolk, she develops a passion for dancing and takes every opportunity she can get to go, and this upsets the people that have hired her as a live-in servant girl. The problem is that Antonia's dancing with many different partners has given her a reputation, and the family felt as though it would come back to them negatively. Rather than quit, Antonia goes to work for another house that doesn't care. Even when faced with resistance, Antonia chooses to follow the path she wishes, embodying
Friday, February 28, 2020
What's a good solution to the problem of bullying Stopping Mean Girls From Taking Over the Playground - Essay Example Both authors agree that the problem is made worse by parents who enable their daughters and take pride in their being Ã¢â¬Å"top dogÃ¢â¬ in schools and the playground. These parents are actually missing the point. Their daughters are not growing up to be empowered individuals because they do not live in a world where a check and balance exists with punishements for grevious acts such as playground or school bullying that leads another little girl to take her own life. Mean girl bullying is a real problem that has yet to find a workable solution. Through this paper, I would like to present certain suggestions as to how the problem might be best dealt with with or without the cooperation of the parents of the bully / mean girl. According to Jessica Bennett, the problem of mean girl behavior has gotten so out of hand lately that, due to the fact that it has already caused the deaths of a number of young girls through suicide, authorities should consider turning bullying resulting in death into a crime. Maybe with a punishment of 10 years in jail (Bennett, Jessica Ã¢â¬Å"From Lockers to Lock-UpÃ¢â¬ ). Due to the behavior of the girls involved in the Pheobe Prince case, she might be suggesting an action that makes sense. However, before judgement is passed upon the mean girl, one should first look at the history of the mean girl in order to find out if she is merely acting out or actually beyond help. Maybe the relational agression that is being displayed has something to do with the family life of the girl. According to sources at the website KidsHealth, most bullies come from: ... families where everyone is angry and shouting all the time. They may think that being angry, calling names, and pushing people around is a normal way to act. Some bullies are copying what they've seen someone else do. Some have been bullied themselves (Ã¢â¬Å"Dealing with BulliesÃ¢â¬ ). Taking a cue from that statement, it is important for school authorities, specially the guidanc e counselors to keep an open line of communication with the mean girls or bullies in order to determine the source of aggression. Since women are more docile in nature, even when with peers of her own age, and tend to be more influenced by their mothers actions, it is quite possible that the victim and mean girl are acting out roles based upon their own mother's actions and advice. In which case, it is important to inform the girls about the repercussions of their actions and the fact that no girl is expected to act in the same manner as their mothers. The school authorities should also ensure that anti-bullying programs are in place in school as well. Perhaps reimposing classes in good manners and right conduct are in order. Such classes teach students the proper way to treat one another and their elders as opposed to the Ã¢â¬Å"KardashianÃ¢â¬ type of treating one another or even the Ã¢â¬Å"Gossip GirlÃ¢â¬ type of friendships. Since most of these girls are easily influenced b y the entertainment media, most specially the reality shows, they should be taught to tell the difference between reality and Ã¢â¬Å"entertainment realityÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Growing Old YoungerÃ¢â¬ may be the hip word among the girls these days but just because they know how to act mature does not mean they are mature. They are totally unprepared for real life and think that by play acting, in the same manner that the television shows portray, they are actually aging faster (Paul, Pamela Ã¢â¬Å"The Playground Gets Even TougherÃ¢â¬ ). The Girl Scouts of America actually have an anti-bullying program that could benefit the public and private schools called Ã¢â¬Å"Be a Friend FirstÃ¢â¬ (BFF). This program teaches young girls to stand up for one another with bullies and encourages them to become part of the solution to the mean girl problem by using tools that
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
THE VERMONT COMPANY - Assignment Example Comparing the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s financial ratios with the ratios of Vermont Company reveal similarities hence an implication that the company is doing fairly with respect to the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s current situation. The accountant is therefore not justifiably concerned. Should the bank call or demand immediate repayment of the loan, then the Vermont Company has the option of taking a short borrowing from another bank or selling more shares in the market to increase the share capital of the company. g. Assuming that instead of disposable paper and plastic products that the business sells automobiles to individuals, this change in the industry would alter my recommendations. This is because different industries are affected by different factors and economic situations. Therefore, considering the fact that the disposable paper and plastic products industry is very different from the automobiles industry, the recommendations would definitely
Friday, January 31, 2020
Business Plan for a Real Estate Business in Bangladesh Essay It will make good quality flats for clients to live and enjoy lot more exclusive facilities. All these will be available at a very reasonable price. Since we believe in economies of scale. Slogan: Ã¢â¬Å"feel like living on heaven in every momentÃ¢â¬ Financing: To start up the business, Tk. 20 crores will be required, some additional needs to be financed by the bank. The loan will be repaid by five years. Confidentiality: This Business Plan is strictly confidential and is the property of the co-owners mentioned above. Any reproduction of the material inside will result is strictly prohibited. There has always been a good demand in the real estate market, and as the income level of the people of Bangladesh grows, that demand is surging even further. People want to buy unique, good-looking and attractive flats, but they want a good value for their money as well. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where we come in. We offer excellent quality flats, at reasonable prices. Another uniqueness of our business is that we have a separate line of apartments for office/bank use only. There is currently no such real estate companies in Bangladesh that offers an exclusive line of apartments. Therefore, in this segment, we can enjoy the benefits of being an oligopolist. On the other hand, we have the business-to-business prospect. Due to good economic growth, apartments are on the rise. Raihan with share of profit and loss according to ratio of equity invested. Together, we have gathered the necessary expertise required to run a real estate business. Initially, we will of course incur losses, but we plan to make profits in the fourth or fifth year. Real Estate Industry Analysis Industry Analysis: Real estate is a fixed, tangible and immovable asset in form of houses or commercial property. Real estate market involves developing, renting, selling/purchasing and renovating of these assets (houses). Market participants includes o Developers (contractors, engineers, and so on), o Facilitators (mortgage companies, real estate brokers, banks, anagement agents and so on), owners, renters (leasers) Each product (house) is unique in terms of buildings, location, and financing thus market has heterogeneous products. Transaction costs are high and the process is usually long. Though there are mobile homes, but the land underneath is till immobile, real estate is an immovable asset. Market Segmentations: The main factor that affects demand in real estate industry is demographic features. The demographic variables include population size and growth, cultural background, beliefs. However, other factors like income, price of housing, cost and availability of funds, consumer preference, supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s preference, price of substitutes and compliments. Future Outlook: One of the most startling statistics regarding real estate in this country, and a fact few people even realize, is that big portion of land in the Bangladesh is held either by the Government or is being used for agricultural purposes. The total farm area comprises about 62% of the total geographical area, forest area accounts for 15%, Perennial water 11% and urban area only 01%. The physical landscape is characterized by small arable fields. There are over 11 million farm holdings with more than 65 million fragments. The pattern of land ownership is highly skewed. 5% for the families having land above 7. 2 acres own 26% of the land and 70% of the families having land below 2. 5 acres own only 29% of the land. The per capita availability of crop land is at present only 0. 24 acre. Land utilization statistics indicate that 54% of the net cropped area is single cropped and area under double and triple cropping account for 72% of the gross cropped area. 20% of the total cropped areas have irrigation facilities. Yield is low i. e. rice -0. 703 metric ton per acre. Annual food deficit ranges between 1. 5 2. 0 million metric tons. Frequent natural calamities like cyclone, flood, drought, tidal bore etc. add to the shortfall of crops and livestock. What this means is that only few portion of the country is available to support all residential and commercial uses. This equates to nearly 1800 people per square mile of land by 2020. Despite the mortgage crisis and resulting financial meltdown of the last several years, these statistics seem to indicate that owning real estate in Bangladesh will continue to be a wise investment. In the very basic economic sense, there is no more land being created (limited supply) and more population density every day (increased demand). ? Economy: Growth in FY2010 was better than expected in April 2010 in Bangladesh, as a pickup in domestic demand neutralized the impact of weak expansion in exports. Inflation came in below the April projection, and the current account surplus was higher. For FY2011, this Update retains the outlook of a moderate uptick in growth, but with a slightly lower forecast for inflation and a larger fall in the current account surplus. To raise growth prospects, power and gas shortages need to be eliminated and reforms accelerated. More fundamentally, political stability will be critical to boosting growth. The bankÃ¢â¬â¢s Monetary Policy Statement (MPS), issued in July 2010, indicated that there may have been some diversion of private credit into consumer spending and into speculative investments in the stock market and real estate. . So we are expecting that, the economic condition in Bangladesh will be much better for business. If we also consider the given figures the scenario will be clear more.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Paulo Freire's The Banking Concept of Education In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËBankingÃ¢â¬â¢ Concept of EducationÃ¢â¬ , Paulo Freire condemns the current beliefs about education, and argues strongly to support his own, new, and somewhat radical ideas about how he believes education should work. It is clear from his writing that he wishes to convey very strong feelings in this essay. At the very beginning, after a very brief description of the Ã¢â¬Å"currentÃ¢â¬ education, he states that Ã¢â¬Å"education is suffering from narration sicknessÃ¢â¬ (212), and later continues to say that in our current system Ã¢â¬Å"[words] become a hollow, alienated, and alienating verbosityÃ¢â¬ (212). These statements, especially at the very beginning of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis, convey an amount of animosity toward the current system. This type of beginning already tells us about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling as being of a very strong opinion about his beliefs, enough to denounce the opposing side at the start, and do so in harsh langu age. After such a commencement, the author goes on for most of the work indulging in logical proof that the current system of education is not correct, but his ideas are. He does so in numerous ways, starting with making parallelÃ¢â¬â¢s between the students and the oppressed races of the world, and the teachers with the tyrants who wish to annul any personal desires of the students. He demonstrates this in several logical progressions, confirming that Ã¢â¬Å"the capability of banking education to minimize or annul the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ creative power ... serves the interests of the oppressorsÃ¢â¬ (214). The author tries to make parallels in the readers mind, which, being human, is against all that bears the name of Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"oppressorÃ¢â¬ , and the such, to get the reader to feel remorse for the c... .... Here the complex structure and the almost-paradoxical ideas of a scientist are obvious. However, the next few sentences are : Ã¢â¬Å"They become jointly responsible for a process in which all grow. In this process arguments based on Ã¢â¬ËauthorityÃ¢â¬â¢ are no longer valid; in order to function, authority must be on the side of freedom, not against itÃ¢â¬ (218). In a sudden shift of style, the author engages the reader in less of complex logic, but more of slogan-based thinking, in which he starts to use words like Ã¢â¬Å"authorityÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"jointly responsibleÃ¢â¬ . Both styles merged create a text which seems universally attractive - as to the science-oriented logical mind, as well as to the less complex person who wishes to see catchy words to captivate his imagination. Works cited : Paulo Freire, The Ã¢â¬Å"BankingÃ¢â¬ Concept of Education, Ways of Reading, (Boston,1996), p.212-223.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Boiler Room Boiler room is a story about a college dropout name of Seth. He likes the feeling of earning fast money, therefore he decided to quit school and start an underground casino in his apartment with a few of his friends. However, his father, who is a federal judge, finds out about the casino. His father then commends him to close down the casino and search for a real job. Seth wants to regain respect and approval from his father, and fortunately he got introduce to a stockbroker company J. T. Marlin. Seth has a great talent in this job and he becomes the best trainee in the firm. He works under the senior brokers, and starting to adapt to the Ã¢â¬Å"Always be closingÃ¢â¬ philosophy, which means he never take no as the answer and will keep convincing the customers until he objective is reached. Very soon, Seth becoming a successful broker and neglect all the unethical issues he is committing. He not only sells stocks to the rich Ã¢â¬Å"whalesÃ¢â¬ , he also drags the poor workers that can barely afford a new house into the scam. Unfortunately, Seth discovers the truth about the numerous stocks sold by the firm and realizes J. T. Marlin is a boiler room that sells non-profitable stocks. And start to realize that all these times he is forcing customers to buy something that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want or cannot afford. There are quite a few of unethical dilemmas throughout the movie. First of all, Seth and his firm are selling non-profitable stocks to rich people that are interested in high return investment. Moreover, J. T. Marlin teaches their employees to tell untrue statement about the stock and the company in order to attract the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest toward the stocks. The drug that helps infants to develop is one of the examples they mention in the movie. Also, at the middle of the movie, once the brokers see the rip increase, they will try to push the customers even harder in order to make a fortune for themselves. Furthermore, the more skillful Seth becomes, the more we can see Seth is using different powerful persuasive techniques in order to catch the attention of the clients. On the other hand, it is very unethical for Seth to drag the poor people into buy stock that will never be profitable, because they are selling stock for companies that donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. However, there is still an ethical side of Seth. For example, he tries to protect his father from losing his job due to try to help Seth from trying to get back J. T. Marlin. He also agrees to work with the FBI to raid J. T. Marlin so that no more victims will fall into their scams. And most of all he helps Harry, the poor investor, to get his life saving back in the end. So it is nice to see Seth changes his mind and try to become clean in the end.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1599 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Psychology Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Essay on Motivation and Strength According to Landy and Becker (1987), Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe psychological meaning of motivation is the internal mental state of a person which relates to the initiation, direction, persistence, intensity, and termination of behaviourÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . The internal force or desire that drives an individual towards the achievement of a fixed goal. Since, motivation alone is not enough to achieve a goal, ability is needed for a motivated individual to accomplish a given task. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Essay on Motivation and Strength" essay for you Create order Therefore, ability is the knowledge or capacity of executing a task. Ability is strength. Linley (2008), suggests that, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âstrength is a pre-existing capacity for a particular way of behaving, thinking, or feeling that is authentic and energising to the user, and enables optimal functioning, development and performance. The aim of this essay is to demonstrate how needs motivate individuals and affects their behaviours. Ability is what you are capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do and how you do it. Motivation is the process that explains how and why human behaviour is directed and affected (Latham, 2007). There are two types of motivation, intrinsic, the internal factors such as desire to work hard and the reward for working hard and the satisfaction to have accomplished something (wood et al, 2006). For example, if a manager announces that the hardest working employee will be crowned the employee of the month. It will trigger in an individual the desire to always finish and submit a task before the given time so as to be nominated as an employee of the month. Extrinsic motivation, external factors such as money, holidays and other tangible incentives. And it can be caused by the desire of an individual to achieve a certain aim. When an individual is satisfied by external factors, it can be said that he/she is extrinsic motivated (Osterloh Frey, 2000 p.539). The main theories of motivation are content theory and process theory. The content theory explains the reason for a motivated behaviour; that is, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âwhatÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã causes it. A content theory would explain behaviour aspects in terms of specific human needs or specific factor that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdriveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã behaviour (Henry, Tosi and Mero, 2000 p.129). For example, I am motivated to study for a degree or Jude is working hard to gain promotion. The desire to achieve a goal or something that affects an individual behaviour. Four major content theori es of motivation are: MaslowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Hierarchy of needs theory, HerzbergÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s motivation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" hygiene theory, AlderferÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ERG theory and McClellandÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory. According to Maslow A. (1943), human needs can be categorised into five categories: (1) Physiological needs, are those primary needs required for survival like physical well-being food air clothing. (2) Safety needs reflect a desire for protection against loss of shelter, food and other basic requirements for survival. (3) Social needs such as affiliation, love and affection the need for family. (4) Esteem needs the desire to be respected by others and for a positive self-image. (5) Self-actualisation needs personal growth, individual desire to do what he or she has the potential of doing. The basic needs must be fulfilled before moving to next level of need. Physical well-being must be provided before anything else can assume importanc e for a person. A person in real life must eat, breathe air before he can tend to move to another level of hierarchy needs. If a person is threatened or sick advancement to the next level of needs will be ignored until the issue is resolved. Higher order needs are unimportant unless the lower order needs are satisfied. According to MaslowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory a person is not motivated by a need that is satisfied. AlderferÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1972), classified MaslowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory in three categories of basic needs. They are existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs (ERG Theory). Existence needs summarised MaslowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s physiological needs and security needs for material needs. Relatedness needs encompass security needs for interpersonal matters, affiliation and needs of an interpersonal nature. Growth needs concentrate on the need to confirm personal esteem and self-actualization Similar to MaslowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory, ERG theory suggests that unsatisfied need does not arouse the desire for higher-order needs. According Miner (1980), ERG theory states that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe less relatedness needs are fulfilled, the more existence needs will be desired. And the less growth needs are fulfilled, the more relatedness needs will be desiredÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . This means that if a person is not able to satisfy the higher order needs, he/she will focus on the lower order needs, that is, he/she will regress on the need hierarchy. Herzberg (1959), considers Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhygiene and motivating factors in determining productivity and is called the two-factor theory. Hygiene factors are job contextual. They are satisfiers and not motivators and their absence create dissatisfaction.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã The presence of hygiene factors are satisfying and motivating because motivating factors are associated with the content of the job. According to McClelland (1965) , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe two important concepts that underlie achievement-power theory are: Motive and The force of motives on behaviour. Motives are affectively toned associated networks arranged in a hierarchy of strength and importance within a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . Motive has a big effect on behaviour and can generate the following needs: the needs for achievement, the need for power and the need for affiliation. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAchievement motive is extent to which success is important and valued by a person. The strength of motive is related to socialization experiencesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Heckhausen, 1967). The need for power having the desire to influence and control others and the environment. The need for affiliation, motive to develop and maintain close and meaningful relationships. Motivation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" The Process Theories According to Tosi et al (2000), Process theories of motivation deals with how changes occur in behaviour without much emphasis on the specifi c factors (or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcontentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ) that causes behaviour. The process theories include the following: Reinforcement theory Expectancy theory Equity theory Goal-setting theory Organisational justice theories The four types of reinforcement consequences are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Positive reinforcement recompenses desirable behaviour. When a positive behaviour is rewarded with incentives like promotion, end of year bonus or salary increase, the individual tend to repeat the desired behaviour. Avoidance is trying to show an employee the result of an improper behaviour which he/she will not experience if behaved otherwise. Extinction is mainly ignoring the behaviour of a dependent and not providing either positive or negative reinforcement. Punishment using a negative action to prevent reoccurrences of an improper behaviour. Rewards can be extrinsic when external factors such as money, fringe benefits or job security are used as rewarding elements. Intrinsic Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" internal satisfaction outcome from doing work. Satisfaction Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s attitude about work situation. Expec tancy theory according to Vroom (1964), deal with the idea that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âwhen you put an effort to a work, the outcome will be that you desire. Equity theory basically when an employee compares the outcome of his input and output with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. Equity theory states that people are motivated to maintain Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âfair relationship with others and to rectify unfair relationship by making them fairÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Baron, 1983). Goal-setting is based on a simple premise: performance is caused by a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s intention to perform (Locke et al; 1981). Goals are what a person is trying to accomplish or intends to do, and according to this theory, people will do what they are trying to do (Locke, 1968). Organisational justice theory procedural justice is the extent to which people believe they are treated fairly in terms of how decisions are made about things that affect them in the work. And distributi ve justice is the degree to which people believe that they are treated fairly and equitably with respect to work outcomes. According to Aristotle strength is the best thing in us and things we are good at. There are two approaches of study of strength and they are: Strength Based Approach by Linley Positive Psychology by Seligman Linley (2006) focuses on what is right, what is working and what is strong. That strengths are part of our basic human nature, therefore every person has strength and deserves respect for their strength. Our areas of greatest potentials are in the areas of our greatest strength. We succeed by fixing our weakness only when we are also making the most of our strength. Therefore, using our strength is the smallest thing we can do to make the biggest difference. Seligman (2000) observed an imbalance in psychology research as it focused more in the negative side of personal psychology. That positive psychology is about well-being, contentment and satisfaction (in the past); hope and optimum (for the future); and flow and happiness (in the present). The positive and development state of an individual are characterised by high self-efficacy, optimum, hope and resiliency. According to Snyder (1995) hope is a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s desire to achieve a goal (agency) and ability to e nvision varied options to achieve their goal (pathway). Peterson and Seligman identified the 24 strengths or character traits which can benefit happiness and wellbeing. According to Seligman we can identify our signature strength and use these regularly in our lives. The 24 character traits are divided into groups of six distinti virtues as follows: Wisdom and knowledge (creativity, curiosity, judgement, love of learning, perspective) Courage (bravery, perseverance, honesty, zest) Humanity (love, kindness, social, intelligence) Justice (teamwork, fairness, leadership) Temperance (forgiveness, humility, prudence, self-regulation) Transcendence (appreciation of beauty and excellence, gratitude, hope, humour, spirituality) In conclusion Landy, f.J. and Becker, W.S. 1987: Motivation theory reconsidered. In L.L. Cummings and B.M. Staw (eds) Resarch in Organisation Behavvior, 9th edn, Greenwich, CT: JAI press, 1-38. Tosi, H., Mero, N. and Rizzo, J. (2000).Managing organizational behavior. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell. Maslow, A.H. 1943: A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-96 1